hip arthritis

Coxarthrosis(hip arthritis) is a deformed form of the joint, which is a chronic non-inflammatory disease affecting the hip joint (one or both at the same time). This disease has a degenerative-dystrophic nature. This means that the cartilage that forms the hip undergoes degenerative changes, while also changing the surface of the bone. Furthermore, bone growth (bone-forming substance) is formed, joint deformities, mass of movement in the affected joint is reduced, and they become extremely painful and uncomfortable.

The hip joint is one of the largest joints in our body. It is thanks to him that a very important motor function is performed in the human body, and he is also responsible for ensuring that our body can move. If the hip joint is diseased, then this will affect the whole body and make the patient unable to live peacefully, walk, not to mention play sports. We often see older people forced to use a cane due to a hip problem.

hip arthritis

Despite the fact that the hip joint is extremely large and strong, at the same time it is also quite vulnerable, especially over time. Hip pain significantly reduces a person's quality of life.

Coxarthrosis (inflammation of the hip joint)Definitely second among dry joints in terms of frequency of cases diagnosed after fibromyalgia (dryness of the knee joint).

Classification of coxarthrosis (inflammation of the hip joint)

It happenedcoxarthrosisboth primary and secondary.

  • The cause of primary coxarthrosis is mainly due to the inevitable wear and tear of the hip joint over the course of life, and usually affects people after the age of 40.
  • The causes of secondary coxarthrosis are usually the following: congenital dislocation of the thigh, necrotic masses of the hip bone in its head region, Peter's disease, previous hip trauma, inflammatory diseases of the hip joint. In therehip arthritismay affect a single joint or both.

There are several types of coxarthrosis:

  • Dysplasia (is a congenital pathology and is characterized by underdevelopment of the joints).
  • Unrelated (typical for those of an older age and associated with age-related changes).
  • Post-infectious (previously purulent rheumatoid arthritis or purulent allergy).
  • Disease caused by Peters disease (bone growth at the top of the femur).
  • Coxarthrosisdue to trauma (fracture of the neck and ends of the bones (femur)).
  • Coxarthrosis due to a disorder of metabolism (metabolism).
  • Dishormonal (long-term use of glucocorticosteroids, antidepressants).
  • Idiopathic (cause cannot be determined).

Symptoms of coxarthrosis (inflammation of the hip joint)

To accurately describe the symptoms of coxarthrosis, one should simultaneously consider the stages of the disease, because the symptoms depend on the stage of the disease.

Stages of coxarthrosis (degenerative hip disease)

In total, there are three stages of coxarthrosis (dry joint disease of the hip joint):

  • Early stage of coxarthrosis. This is the early stage of the disease, when the symptoms are mild. Joints at this stage are not very painful and the pain only appears after exertion such as heavy lifting or jogging or hiking. After the patient rests, the pain disappears. The patient may also become limp if he walks more than two kilometers. Increased pain sensation when walking up stairs. Movement volume of the joint is slightly reduced or preserved. X-ray examination can show only small changes in bone structure.
  • Stage 2 of coxarthrosis. This stage develops in the absence of early treatment. For the above symptoms, a specific crack (crease) in the joint is added. The pain becomes more intense and begins to spread to the groin area, and may spread to the thighs and knees. At this stage, not only vigorous exercise, but any movement also causes painful symptoms, even a light load on the hip joint. Even getting out of bed or turning around can cause pain. There is muscle tension around the joint, which does not go away at night, so patients often complain of thigh pain at night. A person can begin to limp even after a small walk (up to 500 meters). At this stage, the disease forces the patient to lean on a cane when walking. The limitation of movement in the joint becomes more apparent. According to the results of X-ray diagnosis, newly emerging bone cells are identified.
  • Third stage of coxarthrosis. The final stage of the disease. At this stage, the pain becomes permanent and torments the patient. Any movement, even the weakest, increases the pain symptoms many times over. At this stage, the hip is completely immobile. Muscle mass in the thighs and buttocks is reduced due to muscular dystrophy, which is very noticeable. The characteristic is that the patient cannot stand directly, and at the same time, the body will be deviated. Any degeneration of the joint leads to the formation of spasticity (bent position), in this case spasticity is also formed because the muscle fibers are always tense, while the leg on the injured side becomes stiff. should be shorter. As a result, the hip joint is immobilized, the whole leg can no longer perform its motor function, this has a negative impact and leads to bone and joint damage. In addition, the spine also suffers from discomfort and pain in the sacrum.

Causes of coxarthrosis (inflammation of the hip joint)

The main causes of coxarthrosis are:

  • Age-related changes in joints. Typical for older people. The hip joint wears out over time, no longer performing its functions over time, "drying out", leading to a decrease in the impact and friction absorption function of the bones that make up the joint.
  • Injury to the hip joint. The most common injury in this age group is a femoral neck fracture, which is potentially disabling if not treated appropriately. Joints can be injured at any age, but older people are more often affected.
  • Metabolism is disturbed. This is typical for people with a history of metabolic disorders and diseases related to impaired metabolism.
  • Violation of hormonal status. That is characteristic of women, especially those who have been taking antidepressants and glucocorticosteroids for a long time.
  • Hereditary defects in the development of the musculoskeletal system, as well as birth defects. Unfortunately, at present, a large number of children are born with congenital musculoskeletal and neurological diseases. As for abnormalities in the development of the hip, this can include its dysplasia, in which certain structures of the joint fail to develop.
  • Systemic arthritis. Injury to several joints can also lead to hip damage. In this case, one of the main risk factors will be the presence of an inflammatory process.
  • Rheumatoid conditions and chronic arthritis. All this can also lead to the appearance of pain in the hip joint. Diseases causing pain in the joints studied include: rheumatic diseases; rheumatoid arthritis; degenerative spondylolisthesis; juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
  • The defeat of osteonecrosis. Spinal osteosarcoma is a fairly common and serious disease, in addition to the spine, it can "disable" other structures of our body, namely the hip joint.
  • Muscles and ligaments of joints. Damage to these structures can also result from degenerative and dystrophic processes in the hip joint.
  • Infectious lesions of both the joint and the femur. Such injuries are very serious, as they lead to serious consequences and are sometimes difficult to treat. Osteomyelitis can occur, simply by "eating" or "dissolving" bone tissue. Tuberculosis lesions can also occur, and such localization usually occurs in prepubertal children. Abscess in the pelvis, usually the result of an untreated or poorly managed infectious process, such as appendicitis, inflammatory processes, especially when in the female genitalia (ovary disease), the development of an abscess in the deeper isotropic region leads to impaired gait (clumping gait). In most cases, pain and limping are the result of compression or damage to nearby nerves (sciatica or sciatica).
  • Tumors of a malignant nature. Very rarely, malignancies affect the hip joint and the bones around it, as the cause is usually metastasis from other malignancies, such as breast or lung cancer.
  • Narrowing of the lumen of the aorta and iliac arteries (their narrowing and occlusion). At the same time, joints receive less and less nutrients needed for normal functioning, leading to degeneration.

Risk group for coxarthrosis (degeneration of the hip joint)

The main risk groups may include the following types of people and harmful factors:

  • Elder. This disease is specific to the elderly, the elderly, since degenerative processes take place precisely at this age.
  • Female. According to statistics, women are more prone to hip problems.
  • People who are overweight or obese.
  • Previous injury to one or both hip joints.
  • Genetic predisposition to this type of disease and birth defects in the development of the hip.
  • Past presence of infectious lesions, such as abscesses, aseptic necrosis of the head of the hip, osteomyelitis, etc. v.
  • Hard manual labor.
  • Summer residents are at a very high risk of coxarthrosis.

Prevention of coxarthrosis (inflammation of the hip joint)

The main measures to prevent coxarthrosis are as follows:

  • Dose physical activity. It is important to exercise and mobilize the joint to prevent the development of pathological processes in it and slow down its aging process. This not only improves the condition of the hip joint but also the whole body.
  • If metabolic disturbances are present, they should be corrected. To do this, you should contact a specialist.
  • Monitor your weight. Do not forget that the hip is inherently loaded with a large load, almost the entire body, so you should not interfere for it to perform its functions. In addition, a lot of weight will put pressure on the joints causing them to collapse. Overweight people are also prone to metabolic disorders.
  • Avoid strong turns, especially if you're not warmed up and unprepared, this will keep you from injuring your femoral head and neck.
  • Of course, it is always better to choose a sport that causes the least joint injury, such as swimming or yoga, especially if there is a genetic predisposition or developmental deformity.
  • The possibility of diseases of the joints means that they must be carefully handled, as well as regularly visit a doctor so as not to miss the possible development of a disease or any other pathological process in the joints.
  • If a child is diagnosed with hip dysplasia, it should be treated, and immediately! It is better to leave the child immobile for a few weeks at an early age than to suffer for a lifetime.
  • Timely treatment of infectious diseases, especially those with the risk of spreading to the hip joint.

Diagnosis of coxarthrosis (inflammation of the hip joint)

When diagnosing coxarthrosis, it is very important to find out what is causing it. After all, as we discussed above, there are many reasons, they are very diverse, andhip osteoarthritis treatment, respectively, will be completely different. Sometimes it's not that easy, and sometimes it just can't be done. The study of the manifestations of the disease is focused and the appropriate treatment method is selected.

First, the patient was carefully interviewed by the physician, studying in detail the complaints, etiology of the disease, genetic burden, presence of trauma, etc. v. It is very important to have the complaints described above and how long they have been observed in the patient.

After the interview, the doctor will personally examine the affected area for changes in inflammation, nutrition, malformations, shortening of limbs, asymmetry, etc. v. And the child may have a "click" symptom.

An important point is the additional examination methods - magnetic and computer resonance imaging, ultrasound and X-ray, as they will help to make the final diagnosis. In the differential diagnosis of coxarthrosis from other diseases of the hip, this item is extremely important.