Low back pain: causes, diagnosis and treatment methods

Intermittent or intermittent low back pain often indicates that an inflammatory or degenerative-dystrophic disease is developing in the body. Early diagnosis of this disease can increase the chances of a full recovery. Pain in the lateral half of the spine can be a sign of osteonecrosis, hernia, protrusion, infection, or problems with internal organs.

Why does the lower back hurt?

If a person complains of symptoms of pain in the lumbar spine, the doctor initially doubts the patient's problems with the musculoskeletal system. And only after such diseases are ruled out, a thorough examination is carried out to assess the condition of the internal organs.

low back pain

This is because there is a common encapsulation of the lumbar vertebrae and discs with the trunks of nerve tissue. For this reason, the occurrence of pain, for example, in the digestive organs, can occur only in the lumbar region. Let's take a closer look at some of the causes of low back pain.


It is a relatively natural source of back pain. During strenuous physical labor or active sports training, muscle tissues are exposed to excessive stress. It accumulates lactic acid, which irritates the tissues of skeletal muscles. As a result, in addition to pain, a person also notes the appearance of a sufficiently strong burning sensation. Any discomfort will disappear after a short rest, as lactic acid is excreted from the muscles.

In the case of low back pain every time you exercise, if their intensity does not change for several hours, you should consult a doctor. Excessive exercise, heavy lifting often causes the appearance of microtraumas in the discs and vertebrae, forming diseases of a degenerative-dystrophic nature.

Bone tumors and herniated discs

Lumbar fibroids stage I, II, and III are the main cause of back pain. In the early stages, the patient is worried about minor discomfort, indicating slight destruction of the discs.

Osteoarthritis of the spine is the cause of back pain

In the event that the patient in this stage turns to a neurologist for help, it is possible to completely cure the disease as well as partially restore the destroyed tissue. Severe, intense pain that increases when bending or twisting the trunk indicates severe structural damage to the spine.

In the setting of second or third degree scintigraphy of osteonecrosis, the formation of a hernia or protrusion is often observed. As a result, piercing pain appears, and it is also possible to develop serious complications - lens syndrome, bone marrow pathology.

Gynaecological disease

Low back discomfort often bothers women who have been diagnosed with adnexitis, an inflammation that affects the ovaries and fallopian tubes (uterine appendages) simultaneously. In addition to the pain syndrome, the patient also noted the appearance of discharge from the genitals, problems with conception, and irregularities in the menstrual cycle.

A similar symptom is observed with inflammation of the uterine appendages, formation of cysts in the ovaries and formation of polyps in the uterus.

Kidney disease

Because the kidneys are located right next to the lumbar region, as their function declines, a person may feel pain in the lower back. The fact that these pea-shaped paired organs are affected is due to a violation of the urinary function, the appearance of purulent or bloody impurities in the urine and aggravation of the general state of health.

Pain in the lumbar spine is often troublesome when there are diseases such as: cystitis (including hemorrhage), glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, acute and chronic renal failure.

Holding a baby

Pregnancy as a cause of back pain

This is one of the natural factors that lead to discomfort in the lumbar spine. When a woman gives birth in the future, the uterus and fetus increase in size, so the underlying nerve receptors are compromised.

In the last trimester, the body of the expectant mother begins to produce a special hormone - relaxin. This leads to the relaxation of ligaments and tendons, in order to facilitate the passage of the fetus through the birth canal. As a result, the intensity of the pain can increase suddenly.

Endometrial optimism

This is a common gynecological disease, on the background of which the tissues inside the uterus grow beyond its limits. Endometrial tissues are more sensitive to hormones synthesized by the body, for this reason endometriosis is manifested by monthly bleeding. As a result, inflammation develops, one of the hallmarks of pain syndrome, which spreads to the surrounding area of the spine.


Pain of a pulsating nature of moderate severity occurs in up to half of women before menstruation or during bleeding. This pain occurs quite naturally and goes away as soon as the period ends. You may also feel discomfort in your lower back.

low back pain

The pathological etiology of low back pain during menstruation is indicated by the presence of gastrointestinal disturbances, diarrhea or constipation, frequent headaches and dizziness. In a similar situation, a woman may be diagnosed with ovulatory or menstrual irregularity.

Chest size

The spine in women with large breasts is subjected to a large load. If the mammary glands are not correctly distributed, the risk of the formation of destructive degenerative processes increases. Women with large breasts often stoop, which contributes to the degeneration of the spine.

Uncomfortable shoes

The feeling of pain in the lumbar spine that appears at the end of the working day is a common condition of women who wear tight high heels. This leads to a violation of blood vessels, disorders of blood circulation in the lower extremities and pelvic organs. As a result, the nutrition of the discs in the lumbar region is poor, so they are destroyed. The situation is getting worse day by day due to the increased stress on the spine.


During menopause in a woman's body there is a decrease in the production of estrogens involved in the regulation of the recovery processes in the musculoskeletal system. The bone structure loses the ability to fully assimilate the trace elements necessary for recovery. It becomes fragile, which can lead to frequent fractures. Pain in the lumbar spine during menopause may be a manifestation of the process of bone loss, forming osteoporosis.


Chair exercises to treat low back pain

Being overweight is one of the causes of glowing osteonecrosis. Excess weight increases the load on the intervertebral discs, leading to an increased risk of minor injury with further destruction of vertebral tissue.

An overweight person often has a poor appetite. His diet is rich in high-calorie foods, and fresh vegetables containing essential trace elements and vitamins are not consumed in sufficient quantities. With an increase in the load combined with a deficiency of useful substances, there is a tendency to form osteonecrosis of the lumbar region.


Changes in the genetic structure of cells lead to a violation of the regulations of their growth and reproduction. As a result, there is a pathological proliferation of the tissue, the formation of a tumor of a benign or malignant nature.

Pain in the lumbar spine can manifest itself on the basis of a tumor that invades sensitive nerve receptors, the spine, soft tissues and the circulatory system. Calcium is absorbed in large quantities by the cytoplasm, so a deficiency of this substance develops in the bone tissue, leading to osteoporosis.


The muscles of the skeleton in the light area are often inflamed due to the effects of low temperature. This becomes the reason for the formation of myositis - a disease that manifests as a local pain syndrome in the damaged muscles. Its intensity increases significantly during movement and palpation. Against the background of the inflammatory process, there is an increase in muscle tone, which makes the lower back less mobile.

Types of pain

pain in lower back

An initial diagnosis can be made based on a detailed description of the worrisome symptom. With each disease, pain manifestations with different levels, frequencies, and disease states before appearing.

Strong pain

This pain syndrome is typical for stages II and III of lumbar osteonecrosis. At this stage, the discs undergo significant destruction, and their amortization properties are lost. They do not have the ability to soften the load during movement, making the vertebral structure unstable.

This leads to compression of the soft tissues. Severe pain begins to appear even when immobilized, develops against the background of twists and turns, loud laughter, coughing and sneezing. In addition, there is a feeling of "goosebumps" and muscle weakness.


The reason for the occurrence of acute pain syndrome is that bone or disc cells press on receptors in the spinal canal. This is typical for a low back pain, often manifested in rheumatic diseases, systemic osteonecrosis, muscle relaxants.

The pain is very obvious, penetrating, burning, making the patient unable to move. Often, a person cannot straighten his back due to fear that pain will appear.

It's a dull pain

Dull, aching and pressing lumbar spine pain is characteristic of diseases of the internal systems, including the genital and reproductive organs. Such discomfort can indicate the development of osteonecrosis, spondylosis, spondylitis.

The pain is not localized, but may radiate down the hips, buttocks, and ankles. Often, aches and pains are evidence of a destructive process in the spine or inflammation in the internal system.

Chronic pain

exercises for back pain

Frequent pain in the lower back indicates that the disease has turned chronic. It is sharp, powerful during relapses, radiating to adjacent areas of the body. During the period of remission, slight discomfort appears with hypothermia, exercise, exacerbation of other diseases, acute respiratory viral infections.

The pain syndrome is aggravated by bending over, turning, going up stairs, and walking for long periods of time.

Diagnostic measures

The disease is diagnosed on the basis of the patient's complaints, his imaging examination, histopathological data, the results of instrumental and laboratory diagnostics. The best information in identifying problems with the musculoskeletal system is an x-ray examination. In the resulting images, you can see that the vertebrae have been altered, bone-forming substances have been formed (toobone formation).

If the doctor suspects the development of a hernia, protrusion, diseases of the internal system, ultrasound, MRI and CT are prescribed. Thanks to these diagnostic methods, it is possible to find out where the disease is located, evaluate the progression of the inflammation.

A clinical study of blood and urine is required. If there is suspicion of the presence of a systemic disease (gout, rheumatoid arthritis), a biochemical, serological study is performed.

Which doctor to contact?

Most often, back pain occurs after trauma - compression of the vertebrae, severe bruising, damage to the spinal canal. In such a situation, you will need the help of a trauma specialist.

You can also see a therapist. Such a doctor can diagnose diseases of the spine, internal systems. After examining the diagnostic results, the doctor will determine which narrow specialty (rheumatologist, neurologist or orthopedist) is needed to prescribe further treatment.

medical examination for patients with back pain

First aid

If there is severe acute pain, the victim should be placed on a hard surface in a position where the discomfort becomes less pronounced. You can lie down with your knees slightly bent and place a rolled-up blanket underneath. For quick pain relief, you can take any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Therapeutic action

Pain relievers can help get rid of back pain. Their effects won't last long if you don't properly treat the underlying disease. Some diseases of the internal system are well treated, including oncology. But complete restoration of the destroyed discs and deformed vertebrae against the background of osteonecrosis is not possible. The goal of therapy is to achieve stable remission, where pain in the lumbar spine does not bother.

Drug treatment

First of all, for back pain, the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the form of tablets or capsules is prescribed.

In the case of cancer, they have to resort to the help of narcotic pain relievers. If pain is caused by skeletal muscle spasms, muscle relaxants are indicated.

In the treatment of diseases of the internal system, analgesics are also prescribed.

Treatment with ointments and gels

Ointments and gels are used to relieve mild to moderate discomfort in the lower back. External drugs are also included in the treatment regimen to reduce the dose of injectable drugs and tablets, in order to reduce the pharmacological load on the body.

For back pain, the use of external agents from the following groups can be prescribed:

  1. NSAIDs - have anti-inflammatory, analgesic and decongestant effects.
  2. Warming gels and ointments - have an analgesic, local irritant and distracting effect.
  3. Chondroprotectors against the background of osteonecrosis - have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, stimulate disc restoration.


The choice of pain reliever, the doctor is based on the type of disease, its course, the severity of the pain syndrome. To eliminate acute pain, they often resort to the help of blocking drugs with the use of glucocorticosteroids and anesthetics. The use of hormonal agents is quite harmful to the body, so that such procedures can be carried out up to 1 time in 1-3 months.

To eliminate severe pain, NSAIDs are prescribed in the form of injections into the muscle.

Physical therapy

back pain gymnastics

If a disease has been diagnosed or to prevent its development, experts recommend that patients perform therapeutic exercises every day. This will help:

  • improves blood circulation in the lumbar region;
  • strengthen the musculature of the back;
  • reduce the intensity of the pain.

The fitness complex is developed by the attending physician based on the type of disease, existing complications, and the patient's physical condition.

Massage treatment

To improve the supply of blood and nutrients to the tissues, normalize the tone of skeletal and smooth muscles, to strengthen the muscles, you should perform a massage:

  • classic;
  • point;
  • segment;
  • boxed.

Massage is prescribed both for therapeutic purposes and to prevent the development of exacerbations in the chronic course of the pathology.

Massage as a way to treat low back pain

Heat and cold treatment

The impact of heat on the lumbar spine area eliminates the pain, but only after the acute inflammatory process has ceased. For these purposes, a heating pad, warming ointment or gel, bath is suitable.

Under the influence of cryotherapy (cold therapy), adaptive systems are activated. At the heart of this physical therapy procedure, the body's response is not hypothermia of the outer layers of the skin.

Preventive action

It is possible to prevent the occurrence of pain in the lumbar spine by eliminating factors that can provoke the occurrence of the problem. Need to stop wearing high heels, limit eating foods with very high calories. Regular exercise, swimming and yoga are good prevention.