Of the many known diseases, mostCommon musculoskeletal diseases, which are mainly related to inactivity. In addition, such problems are inherent not only in the elderly but also in young people, cervical spondylosis occupies a special place among the diseases affecting the musculoskeletal system, What disease is this? What does it threaten its owner with? How does it manifest itself? Are there effective prevention and treatment measures?
Cervical spondylosis is a progressive degenerative-dystrophic disease, accompanied by deformity of the intervertebral discs. It needs immediate treatment to prevent irreversible pathological changes. Among the various forms of osteonecrosis, cervical pathology occupies the second place, second only to lumbosacral lesions.
Stages of the disease
The development of cervical osteonecrosis occurs in stages:
- Early stage. The discs begin to collapse: cracks appear in the fibrous annular, the disc loses its strength and elasticity, and becomes smaller in height. As a result, nerve roots are compressed, leading to pain.
- Second stage. The destruction of the disc continues, leading to small dislocations of the vertebrae. Pain increases and becomes permanent. Falling head syndrome can occur, which is characterized by severe pain that forces the head to be held in a fixed position.
- Third stage. The annulus fibers are almost completely destroyed, leading to protrusion and disc herniation. In this case, the pain can be reduced because there is no source of pain - cartilage tissue. But the pain syndrome does not completely go away, because the nerve roots are still compressed. Possible violation of sensitivity, the appearance of headaches and dizziness, nausea, "lumbar pain" in the neck.
In the early stages, the disease is successfully cured. In the second and third stages, irreversible changes take place. Therefore, it will not be possible to fully recover the body.
Causes of pathological changes
The vertebrae located in the cervical spine are the most mobile. They are small in size and weak in muscles. This structure of the vertebrae contributes to the development of degenerative disorders. In addition, the cervical area is a place where many nerves and blood vessels are concentrated, damage not only causes uncomfortable symptoms but also causes many serious complications.
The main factors that lead to the development of cervical osteonecrosis include:
- sedentary lifestyle;
- prolong the time in the same position;
- disruption in metabolism;
- salt deposition;
- poor nutrition.
The risk of developing the disease increases when:
- genetic predisposition;
- old age;
- neck injury;
- persistent or frequent hypothermia;
- hormone imbalance;
- autoimmune diseases;
- chronic diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
Symptoms of the disease
The development of cervical osteonecrosis is slow. Symptoms of the disease depend on the number of vertebrae affected, the extent of the damage, and the presence of pinched nerves.
The main symptom of the pathology is pain of varying intensity in the neck, spreading to the back of the head, ears, shoulders, forearms, chest. They are amplified by turning the head and by the slightest exertion.
In addition to pain, with cervical osteonecrosis:
- headaches and heart attacks appear;
- dark circles in the eyes;
- numb limbs;
- tinnitus is heard;
- tongue grows numb;
- impaired vision and hearing;
- strong head turning causes loss of consciousness;
- get tired quickly;
- coordination is disturbed.
Several syndromes of cervical osteonecrosis are known:
- lens - compression of nerve endings leads to severe pain in the neck, radiating to the shoulder, forearm, shoulder blade and lower back;
- heart - the roots of the chest muscle or phrenic nerve are damaged, leading to symptoms resembling a heart attack: persistent pain in the chest area (they do not go away with nitroglycerin), which increases with movement and breathingdeep;
- vertebral artery - sharp pain develops in the back of the head and temples;
- irritation reflex - burning pain occurs in the neck area, spreads to the shoulders and chest area, worsens when coughing and turning the head.
Cervical fibroids can cause significant harm to the body. Especially dangerous because the vertebrae are deformed, damaging the nerve roots and blood vessels that carry blood to the brain. As a result, the brain does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients it needs, which can cause disability and even death, due to impaired heart and respiratory function.
Without the necessary treatment, the disease can lead to many complications: vertebral syndrome, condyle, disc herniation, spinal stroke, cerebral ischemia. Usually, cervical osteonecrosis causes cervical myelopathy. In this case, tumors form on the damaged vertebrae, as a result of which the body partially or completely loses its sensitivity and mobility.
But the most dangerous is spinal cord compression, leading to death.
Therefore, prompt treatment of cervical fibroids is very important, which will help avoid many problems.
To confirm the diagnosis, the patient is referred to an instrumental examination:
- double-sided scanning;
- dopplerography ultrasound;
- computer or magnetic resonance imaging.
Diagnostic measures will provide information on the location and extent of damage.
In cases where the patient has unbearable pain, painkillers (metamizole sodium, etc. ) will come to the rescue. If the pain cannot go away, they must resort to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, nimesulide). But they can not be taken for a long time, since they have an adverse effect on the intestinal tract.
Anesthetic ointments that have a warming and astringent effect can effectively relieve pain.
If the patient's limbs are numb, it is recommended to massage and perform special exercises that help activate blood circulation.
For edema, diuretics are taken.
But all of the above funds can only have a temporary effect. Therefore, you should not postpone the visit to the doctor to prevent the development of complications.
For the fight against disease to be successful, it is essential that:
- pain relief syndrome;
- eliminate swelling;
- restore blood flow;
- strengthen the muscle corset;
- improves tissue nutrition and ensures their regeneration.
Treatment of cervical osteonecrosis must be comprehensive and include:
- drug treatment;
- physical therapy;
- physical therapy exercises;
- alternative methods and traditional medicine;
Drug treatment includes the use of:
- anti-inflammatory drugs - anti-inflammatory, analgesic, activating blood circulation;
- muscle relaxants - reduce muscle spasms;
- chondroprotectors - restore cartilage tissue;
- Vitamin B - can be taken orally and intramuscularly
Physiotherapy procedures are effective for cervical osteonecrosis:
- acupuncture therapy;
- water therapy;
- paraffin therapy.
Effective help in the fight against this disease will be provided by non-traditional methods (osteopathy, homeopathy, acupressure, exercise therapy), massage, therapymanual and special exercises. They stimulate blood circulation, relieve muscle tension, have a beneficial effect on the general condition of the body. But need to participate in physical therapy exercises under the supervision of a specialist, otherwise you may have the opposite effect.
In addition to (but not in place of) drug therapy, folk remedies should be used.
For 3-4 months you need to follow a strict diet:
- refuse products containing cholesterol: animal fat, fatty meat;
- limit the intake of sugar, salt, flour products;
- excluding alcoholic beverages.
An active lifestyle and weight loss are at the heart of preventive measures. A diet that contains essential vitamins and minerals is of no small importance.
The mattress should be firm and the pillow low.
When working sedentary, remember to take breaks.
People who are prone to osteonecrosis need regular orthopedic visits.